Un elemento importate per gli interessi europei e mondiali è la conservazione della foresta amazzonica. [92], Historically, Brazil has been guarded about international intervention into the BLA, as the country sees the forest as a critical part of Brazil's economy. Stop Eating Meat", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon. The number of hectares of Bolivian rainforest affected by the wildfires were roughly equal to those of Brazil, being the area of Bolivia only about one-eighth of Brazil's. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository, Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. [106], Instagram has been a platform for many celebrities who have spoken out about the wildfires such as Cara Delevingne, who posted a picture of the wildfires with the caption "#PrayForAmazonia". La foresta amazzonica, nota anche con il nome di Amazzonia o giungla amazzonica, è una foresta equatoriale situata nel bacino amazzonico in Sud America. La foresta amazzonica è una foresta pluviale che si trova prevalentemente in Brasile. Cardoso said the wildfires are a "tragedy that affects all of humanity" since the Amazon plays an important role in the global ecosystem as a carbon sink to reduce the effects of climate change. [60] It launched its new TerraMA2Q platform—software which adapts fire-monitoring data software including the "occurrence of irregular fires". [78], By August 29, 80,000 fires had broken out in Brazil which represents a 77% rise on the same period in 2018, according to BBC. Come prevenire questa devastazione e incendi? [45][46] Soybean production has increased from 75.32 million metric tons in 2010/11 to 118.8 million metric tons in 2018/19. The 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires season saw a year-to-year surge in fires occurring in the Amazon rainforest and Amazon biome within Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Peru during that year's Amazonian tropical dry season. [119] However, they have both been accused of using the fires as a pretext to scuttle an agreement that they already opposed on protectionist grounds. By August 11, Amazonas had declared a state of emergency. The rate of deforestation was the "worst in more than a decade" with 970,000 hectares (2,400,000 acres) lost. The 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires season saw a year-to-year surge in fires occurring in the Amazon rainforest and Amazon biome within Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Peru during that year's Amazonian tropical dry season. [23] In recent years, "land-grabbers" (grileiros) have been illegally cutting deep into the forest in "Brazil's indigenous territories and other protected forests throughout the Amazon". [12] Further, when the forest is lost through fire, additional carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere, and could potentially contribute significantly to the total carbon dioxide content. [63], The month of August 2019 saw a large growth in the number of observed wildfires according to INPE. [83], According to Vox, of all the concurrent wildfires elsewhere in the world, the wildfires in the Amazon rainforest in Brazil were the most "alarming". : One area important for European and world interests is the preservation of the Amazonian forest. [52] As a result of enforcement of PPCDAM, the rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon dropped 83.5% of their 2004 rates by 2012. Accepting 12 million dollars of aid from the. E subito dopo abbiamo passato tre mesi nella foresta pluviale amazzonica. CC BY-SA 2.5 it [18] Much of the fires are in the Madre de Dios which borders Brazil and Bolivia, though the fires there are not a result of those started in the other countries, according to the regional authority. International leaders and environmental NGOs have condemned President Bolsonaro for the extent of the wildfires within the Brazilian portion of the Amazon. [116] Kerexu Yxapyry, a leader from Santa Catarina's Kerexu tribe, describes this conflict as, "We know our struggle will be arduous. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Sloths, lizards, anteaters, and frogs may unfortunately perish in larger numbers than others due to their small size and lack of mobility. The countries signed a pact to coordinate monitoring of the Amazon forest and disaster response, and a better information network to coordinate their responses. FORESTA AMAZZONICA TERRITORIO La foresta amazzonica o anche detta Amazzonia è una foresta pluviale che si trova nel Sud America. Evidence says otherwise", "Deforestation dropped 18% in Brazil's Amazon over past 12 months", "In Bolsonaro's Brazil, a Showdown Over Amazon Rainforest", "Brazil's environmental changes under a far-right climate skeptic", "Tras incendios en Santa Cruz, Morales justifica los chaqueos", "Feeling Sad About the Amazon Fires? Such activity is generally illegal within these nations, but enforcement of environmental protection can be lax. [127], Finance minister of Finland Mika Lintilä suggested the idea of an EU ban on Brazilian beef imports until the country takes steps to stop the deforestation. Raul Botelho stated was to create a "positive perception" of the government's efforts. However, as most fires are set illegally, it is unclear what impact this decree could have. [24] Even with global warming, spontaneous fires in the Amazon cannot come from warm weather alone, but warm weather is capable of exacerbating the fires once started as there will be drier biomass available for the fire to spread. The Amazon Is a Carbon Bomb: How Can Brazil and the World Work Together to Avoid Setting It Off? [36] Upon entering office, Bolsonaro cut US$23 million from Brazil's environmental enforcement agency, making it difficult for the agency to regulate deforestation efforts. La foresta tropicale esiste da almeno 55 milioni di anni; la maggior parte della regione rimase libera da biomi simili a savana almeno fino all'ultima era glaciale . : Then right after that, we spent three months in the Amazon rain forest. [92] Colombian President Ivan Duque stated he wanted to lead a conservation pact with the other nations that share the Amazon rainforest with plans to present this to the UN General Assembly. [166], Mazeika Sullivan, associate professor at Ohio State University's School of Environment and Natural Resources, explained that the fires could have a massive toll on wildlife in the short term as many animals in the Amazon are not adapted for extraordinary fires. [118][167][168] Merkel has also backed Macron's statements and planned to make the issue a part of the G7 discussions; via a spokesperson, Merkel stated: "The extent of the fires in the Amazon area is shocking and threatening, not only for Brazil and the other affected countries, but also for the whole world. [187], American restaurateur Eddie Huang said he is going vegan as a result of the 2019 Amazon fires. The increased rate of fires in Brazil has raised the most concerns as international leaders, particularly French president Emmanuel Macron, and environmental non-government organizations (ENGOs) attributed these to Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro's pro-business policies that had weakened environmental protections and have encouraged deforestation of the Amazon after he took office in January 2019. Climate scientists fear a tipping point is near", "Forest fires in the Amazon blacken the sun in São Paulo - Darkness on the edge of town", "Amazon burning: Brazil reports record forest fires", "Blame humans for starting the Amazon fires, environmentalists say", "Amazon Rain Forest Fires: Here's What's Really Happening", "As Fires Grow, a New Landscape Appears in the West", "See how much of the Amazon is burning, how it compares to other years", "The highest Amazon deforestation rates in over a decade", "Fires in Brazil's Amazon rainforest surge in July, worst in recent days", "Brazilian Amazon protected areas 'in flames' as land-grabbers invade", "Bolsonaro says reports of Amazon fires are a 'lie.' [34], Brazil's role in deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has been a significant issue since the 1970s, as 60% of the Amazon is contained within Brazil, designated as the Brazil's Legal Amazon (Amazônia Legal, BLA). Original file ‎(2,024 × 971 pixels, file size: 1.34 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/it/deed.en [8] Human-driven deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has been a major concern for decades as the rainforest's impact on the global climate has been measured. [24][62] Bolsonaro and his ministers had also segmented the environmental agency, placing part of its control under the agricultural ministry, which is led by the country's farming lobby, weakened protections on natural reserves and territories belonging to indigenous people, and encouraged businesses to file counter-land claims against regions managed by sustainable forestry practices. Per deforestazione della foresta Amazzonica si intende il progressivo processo di … [1] It is estimated that over 906 thousand hectares (2.24×10^6 acres; 9,060 km2; 3,500 sq mi) of forest within the Amazon biome has been lost to fires in 2019. [189] Leonardo DiCaprio told his Instagram followers to "eliminate or reduce consumption of beef" as "cattle ranching is one of the primary drivers of deforestation. foresta amazzonica. La foresta amazzonica occupa il 63% del Brasile. [133], Bolivia has 7.7 percent of the Amazon rainforest within its borders. [103], After a report from Globo Rural reveal that a WhatsApp group of 70 people was involved with the Day of Fire,[104] Jair Bolsonaro determined the opening of investigations by Federal Police. [170] When the final negotiations were completed, Bolsonaro stated that he would refuse those funds for Brazil, claiming that Macron's interests were about protecting France's agricultural business in French Guiana from Brazil's competition. A national parks researcher said that outsiders only know the Amazon, which is a "shame because the Pantanal is a very important ecological place". Anche se il tasso di deforestazione ha avuto un rallentamento a partire dal 2004 la Contextual translation of "amazzonica" from Italian into Spanish. [64] Additionally, NOAA reported that, regionally, the temperatures in the January–July 2019 period were the second warmest year-to-date on record. Report. "[64], Bolsonaro's foreign minister Ernesto Araújo has also condemned the international criticism of Bolsonaro's reaction to the wildfires, calling it "savage and unfair" treatment towards Bolsonaro and Brazil. Appealing for an international conference to preserve the Amazon with participation of all countries that have some part of the Amazon rainforest in their territory, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 01:37. Parts of the Amazon rainforest's dense canopy were destroyed by the fires, therefore, exposing the lower levels of the ecosystem, which then alters the energy flow of the food chain. [112][113] Protesters around the world also held events at Brazilian embassies, including in London, Paris, Mexico City, and Geneva. On that day, the smoke plume from the fires in Rondônia and Amazonas caused the sky to darken at around 2 p.m. over São Paulo—which is almost 2,800 kilometres (1,700 mi) away from the Amazon basin on the eastern coast. [59][66] There was further increase in the rate of deforestation in July 2019, with the INPE estimating that more than 1,345 square kilometres (519 sq mi; 134,500 ha; 332,000 acres) of land had been deforested in the month and would be on track to surpass the area of Greater London by the end of the month. [185][186], On August 26, 2019, Europe's richest man, Bernard Arnault, declared that his LVMH group will donate $11 million to aid in the fight against the Amazon rainforest wildfires. [152] By August 17, as wind direction changed, flames from fires in Bolivia began to enter northern Paraguay's Three Giants natural reserve in the Paraguayan Pantanal natural region. [183] In a webcast on November 28, 2019, President Jair Bolsonaro said DiCaprio's donations encourage NGOs to set the fires in return for donations, a charge DiCaprio, Global Wildlife Conservation, and IUCN Species Survival Commission vehemently denied. However, with the start of the dry season in May 2019, the number of wildfires jumped greatly. [a][b] He said, "Our house is burning. [156] The Paraná River, which flows through Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, is the "second largest river system in South America". For more on the impacts of displacement on populations. [27], Within international attention on the protection of the Amazon around the early 2000s, Brazil took a more proactive approach to deforestation of the Amazon rainforest. Bolsonaro considered French President Emmanuel Macron's comments to have a "sensationalist tone" and accusing him of interfering in what he considers is a local problem. The Amazon region has become the largest cattle ranching territory in the world. Human translations with examples: wood, forest, forests, foreste, forested, forestry, forestland. According one of the engineers charged with monitoring satellite data showing the "evolution of the fires", the Pantanal is a "complex, fragile, and high-risk ecosystem because it's being transformed from a wetland to a productive system". [80], While INPE's data had been reported in international sources earlier, news of the wildfires were not a major news story until around August 20, 2019. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 it [171][172] Trump himself was absent from the environmental portion of the summit held on August 26, 2019, that discussed the fires and climate change, though members of his advisory team were in attendance. Explore content created by others. While some local government officials and opposition leaders have pled with Morales to update the situation from national emergengy to national disaster, but minister of communication Manuel Canelas said that Bolivia "is not overwhelmed" by fires to make this declaration, and that national emergency is sufficient to receive any type of foreign cooperation. [179][180] Agence France-Presse and El Comercio published guides to help people "fact-check" on misleading photos. [144][149] However, this Supreme Decree only extends the authorized but regulated use of fire already legal in Santa Cruz to the Beni Department, where forest fire issues are not a significant issue. While most countries in the Amazon do have laws and environmental enforcement against deforestation, these are not well enforced, and much of the slash-and-burn activity is done illegally. [65] INPE reported a year-to-year increase of 88% in wildfire occurrences in June 2019. [175] The governors of the states of Brazil most affected by the fires pressured Bolsonaro to accept the aid given. ", "Beef exports fuel loss of Amazonian Forest", "What the Amazon fires mean for wild animals", "Appetite for Destruction: Brazil's soy boom devours tropical savanna", "The Amazon is burning because the world eats so much meat", "Amazon Wildfire Crisis Linked to Meat Consumption: 'These Forests Are Not Burned By Accident, "Soybean production volume in Brazil 2019", "DETER-B: The New Amazon Near Real-Time Deforestation Detection System", "The Amazon Is Burning, and It Doesn't Have the Firefighters to Stop It", "Actor-specific contributions to the deforestation slowdown in the Brazilian Amazon", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "Populist President Sparks Unprecedented Crisis for Brazilian Science", "Deforestation in the Amazon is shooting up, but Brazil's president calls the data 'a lie, "Brazil space institute director sacked in Amazon deforestation row", "Jair Bolsonaro claims without evidence that NGOs are setting fires in Amazon rainforest", "Desmatamento na Amazônia em junho é 88% maior do que no mesmo período de 2018", "Amazonas oficializa pedido, e sete estados já autorizam Forças Armadas no combate a queimadas", "Amazon deforestation accelerating towards unrecoverable 'tipping point, "Amazon Forest Destruction Surges Under Brazil's 'Captain Chainsaw, "Assessing the Global Climate in July 2019", "London climate change protesters daub Brazilian embassy blood red", "Amazonas state declares state of emergency over rising forest fires", "Amazon rainforest hits a wildfire record as concerns grow", "Fires in Amazon Rain Forest Have Surged This Year", "Dia do Fogo- Produtores planejam data para queimada na região", "Here's Where the Amazon Is Burning and Why It's Going to Get Worse", "Forecast - Global Fire Emissions Database", "A Record Number of Fires Are Currently Burning Across the Amazon Rainforest", "Fires Destroy Amazon Rainforest, Blanketing Brazilian Cities in Smog", "Brazil's Amazon is burning in historic wildfires—and deforestation is to blame", "Brazil seeks to curb Amazon fires with ban", "August 29, 2019 updates on wildfires (South America)", "Parts of the Amazon rainforest are on fire — and smoke can be spotted from space", "Amazon rainforest fire: Forests in Brazil, Greenland, and Siberia are burning", "With Amazon Rain Forest Ablaze, Brazil Faces Global Backlash", "Jair Bolsonaro claims NGOs behind Amazon forest fire surge – but provides no evidence", "Bolsonaro Fires Head of Agency Tracking Amazon Deforestation in Brazil", "Diretor do Inpe é demitido após desafiar Bolsonaro", "Brazil's Sacked Space Director Speaks Out on Attacks on Science", "ONGs rebatem fala de Bolsonaro sobre queimadas", "Brazilian president says country lacks money to fight Amazon fires", "The world wants to save the Amazon rainforest. [155][156] Within the Pantanal natural region, which is located between Brazil and Bolivia, is the "world's largest tropical wetland area". [22][56][85][86] Bolsonaro claimed Galvão was using the data to lead an "anti-Brazil campaign". [79], Rodrigo Maia, president of the Chamber of Deputies, announced that he would form a parliatary committee to monitor the problem. L'AMAZZONE ALIARANCIO The pact will also seek cooperative efforts to reduce the need for illegal deforestation in their countries. [64] After INPE announced an 88% increase of wildfires in July 2019, Bolsonaro claimed "the numbers were fake" and fired Ricardo Magnus Osório Galvão, the INPE director. [44] Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef, accounting for more than 20% of global trade of the commodity. Some of these tribes have vowed to fight back against those engaged in deforestation to protect their lands. [69] This represented a 77 percent increase in the number of fires from the same time period in 2018. "[190], Locations of fires, marked in orange, which were detected by, Location of Amazônia Legal (red) within Brazil, Protests against Brazilian government policies, Impact on the indigenous peoples of Brazil, Preserving the Amazon: A Shared Moral Imperative, Meet the Ranchers Who Claim the Brazilian Amazon is Theirs to Burn, environmental non-government organizations, European Union–Mercosur free trade agreement, Center for International Forestry Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Peterson Institute for International Economics, "Situação atual - Programa Queimadas - INPE", "Amazon wildfires will cost Brazil trillions of dollars— damage from Australia's bushfires maybe 5 times greater", "Brazil's Bolsonaro says he will accept aid to fight Amazon fires", "Casal morre abraçado ao tentar fugir de queimada em RO", "Amazon rainforest fires: What caused them and why activists are blaming Brazil's president", "Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink", "A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests", "What you need to know about the Amazon rainforest fires", "Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers", "Flying Rivers – how forests affect water availability downwind and not just downstream", "Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "Brazil's Neighbors Are Also Burning and Poisoning the Amazon", "The Amazon rainforest is on fire. By August 26, 2019, NASA included more recent MODIS imagery to confirm that the number of fires were higher than in previous years. In the week of August 18, Morales dispatched soldiers and three helicopters to fight fires in an area about the size of Oregon. When studying Amazonian fires, it is important to consider the marked spatial differences in precipitation patterns across the Amazon Basin, which does not have a single dry season. At the G7 summit, Macron negotiated with the other nations to allocate US$22 million for emergency aid to the Amazonian countries affected by the fires. [82], Some of these photographs shared on social media were from past fire events in the Amazon or from fires elsewhere. More measures taken by the Brazilian government of Jair Bolsonaro to stop the fires include: In regards to the displacement of the indigenous people, Amnesty International has highlighted the change in protection of lands belonging to the indigenous people, and have called on other nations to pressure Brazil to restore these rights, as they are also essential to protecting the rainforest. [176] Bolsonaro later clarified that he would accept foreign aid for the fires, but only if Brazil has the authority to determine how it is used. [48] While slash-and-burn can be controlled, unskilled farmers may end up causing wildfires. [141] On August 22, Morales contracted the Colorado-based Boeing 747 Supertanker (also known as Global SuperTanker) to conduct firefighting missions over the Bolivian Amazon. L’Amazzonia occupa una superficie molto estesa che può essere paragonata al 42% del continente europeo e che comprende il territorio dalle Ande fino all’Atlantico. Ecologists estimated that the dieback from the Amazon rainforest due to the fires could cost Brazil US$957 billion to US$3.5 trillion over a 30-year period.[2]. [43], Deforestation within Brazil is partially driven by growing demand for beef and soy exports, particularly to China and Hong Kong. "[95] Macron further stated that possible international statute to protect the rainforest may be needed "if a sovereign state took concrete actions that clearly went against the interest of the planet". [157] The Pantana is bounded by the Humid Chaco to the south, the Arid Chaco dry forests to the southwest, Cerrado savannas lie to the north, east and southeast, and the Chiquitano dry forests, to the west and northwest,[155] where thousands of hectares burned in Bolivia. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. [142] Over a period of five days, from August 18 to August 22, 450 thousand hectares (1.1 million acres) of forest near Roboré were burned. Nei primi 6 mesi del 2011 ho firmato 10 obbedienze per la Terra Santa, 6 per il Marocco, 5 per una nuova presenza nella Foresta Amazzonica ed 1 per la Cina continentale. DiCaprio, Global Wildlife Conservation, and IUCN Species Survival Commission condemn Bolsonaro's accusations. [69][71], INPE reported on August 20 that it had detected 39,194 fires in the Amazon rainforest since January. [13] The Amazon wildfires also occurred shortly after major wildfires reported in Greenland and Siberia after a globally hotter-than-average June and July, drawing away coverage of these natural disasters. [91], Bolsonaro, on August 22, argued that Brazil did not have the resources to fight the fires, as the "Amazon is bigger than Europe, how will you fight criminal fires in such an area?". [164], According to the World Wildlife Fund, the jaguar, for example, is already "near threatened" and the loss of food supplies and habitat due to the fires make the situation more critical. "[125], Discussion about the fires came into the final negotiations of the EU–Mercosur Free Trade Agreement between the EU and Mercosur, a trade bloc of Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and Paraguay. [165], Scientists at the Natural History Museum in London described how while some forests have adapted to fire as "important part of a forest ecosystem's natural cycle", the Amazon rainforest—which is "made up of lowland, wetland forests"—is "not well-equipped to deal with fire". [63], INPE alerted the Brazilian government to larger-than-normal growth in the number of fires through June to August 2019. ELEONORA BOLOGNINI FORESTA AMAZZONICA L'AMAZZONIA L'AMAZZONIA La Foresta Amazzonica, è una foresta pluviale tropicale nel Bacino dell'Amazzonia in Sud America. [143], On August 25, 4,000 state employees and volunteers were fighting the fires. Playing next. [54], To support PPCDAM, the INPE began developing systems to monitor the Amazon rainforest. While it is possible for naturally-occurring wildfires to occur in the Amazon, the chances are far less likely to occur, compared to those in California or in Australia. [13], On November 18, 2019 Brazilian authorities announced the official deforestation figures, based on the PRODES satellite monitoring system for the 2019 forest year — from August 1, 2018 to July 31, 2019. Monte Dourado Il pelourinho Mappa della zona in cui si perde L’impossibilità di tenere una direzione dritta nel fitto della foresta La foresta amazzonica: e anche Flora amazzonica: Fauna amaz…